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Aktuelle Forschungsprojekte

CRC: Earth-Evolution at the Dry Limit

Subproject D05: OSL-Dating. Constraining the Pleistocene environmental history of the Atacama: Extending the age range of luminescence dating

Principal Investigator(s): Prof. Dr. Helmut Brückner, Dr. Georgina King

Projektmitarbeiter: Dr. Dominik Brill

Förderung: DFG

A new Collaborative Research Centre (CRC) led by Prof. Tibor Dunai from the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Cologne titled “Earth-Evolution at the Dry Limit” was funded by the DfG in August 2016. This CRC seeks to explore the mutual evolutionary relationships between Earth surface processes and biota, through focussing on the Atacama desert. The CLL (sub-project D05) has been awarded c. 360k € to contribute to the CRC both by providing chronologies to the different sub-projects, and also through developing new techniques capable of extending the age range of luminescence dating. Specifically the CLL has been awarded funds to purchase a new Risø luminescence reader capable of measuring violet stimulated luminescence, which other researchers have shown may enable timescales in excess of 1 Myr to be dated (e.g. Ankjaegaard et al., 2015).

 

 


CRC 806: Our Way to Europe – Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary

Section F2: Application of Luminescence and Electron-Spin-Resonance Dating in Geoarchaeological Studies

Projektleiter: Prof. Dr. Helmut Brückner

Projektmitarbeiter: Franz Hartung, David Strebler, Dr. Nicole Klasen

Förderung: DFG

The Project F2 will concentrate on the following major topics: During the 1st phase of the CRC 806 thermoluminescence (TL) dating of heated silex was successfully established at the Cologne Luminescence Laboratory (CLL). Investigations on the internal dosimetry of heated silex are the basis for further research which focuses on modelling spatially resolved dose rates. Another scope will be the investigation of complex environmental radiation fields (e.g. from excavations and drill cores). We will elaborate measurement routines for spatially resolved palaeodose estimation using an electron multiplying (EM) CCD camera built in the Lexsyg Research luminescence reader (Freiberg Instruments, Freiberg, Germany). Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and autoradiography will be used for spatially resolved dose rate estimation. We will combine the spatially resolved palaeodose and dose rate measurements to improve precision and accuracy in luminescence dating (high resolution-optically stimulated luminescence dating (HR-OSL), HR-TL and HR-infrared-radiofluorescence dating (HR-IR-RF). Furthermore, we offer dating service to other projects from CRC 806 for sediments (from profile sections, drill cores, excavation sites etc.), heated stones and artefacts with TL, OSL, IR-RF, infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL), post-IR-IRSL, thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL), and for carbonates with electron spin resonance dating (ESR). 

Publikationen:

  • Klasen, N., Loibl, C., Rethemeyer, J., Lehmkuhl, F., 2015. Testing feldspar against quartz luminescence dating of sandy loess sediments from the Doroshivtsy site (Ukraine). Quaternary International. DOI: 10.1016/j.quaint.2015.05.036
  • Klasen, N., Fischer, P., Lehmkuhl, F., Hilgers, A., 2015. Luminescence dating of loess deposits from the Remagen-Schwalbenberg site, Western Germany. Geochronometria 42, 67-77.
  • Bartz, M., Klasen, N., Zander, A., Brill, D., Rixhon, G., Seeliger, M., Eiwanger, J., Weniger, GC., Mikdad, A., Brückner, H., 2015. Luminescence dating of ephemeral stream deposits around the Palaeolithic site of Ifri n' Ammar (Morocco). Quaternary Geochronology 30, 460-465.
  • Burow, C., Kehl, M., Hilgers, A., Weniger, G.-C., Angelucci, D.E., Villaverde, V., Zapata, J., Zilhao, J., 2015. Luminescence dating of fluvial deposits in the rock shelter of Cueva Antón, Spain. Geochronometria 42, 107-125.
  • Lehmkuhl, F., Schulte, P., Loibl, C., Klasen, N., Hauck, T., Kels, H., 2014. Environmental change indicated by grain-size variations and trace elements: An example from the sandy-loess sediments from the Doroshivtsy site (Ukraine). Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 16, EGU2014-7981, 2014
  • Kehl, M., Burow, C., Cantalejo, P., Durán, JJ., Henselowsky, F., Klasen, N., Linstädter, J., Medianero, J., Pastoors, A., Ramos, J., Reicherter, K., Schmidt, C., Weniger, GC., in review. Site formation and chronology of the new Palaeolithic site Sima de Las Palomas de Teba, Southern Spain. Quaternary Research.  

Präsentationen:

  • Joerg Zens, Lydia Krauß, Wolfgang Römer, Nicole Klasen, Philipp Schulte, Christian Zeeden, Frank Lehmkuhl: The Last Glacial Maximum in the Northern European loess belt: Correlations between loess-paleosol sequences and the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains); EGU 2016, Vienna
  • Janina Bösken, Igor Obreht, Nicole Klasen, Christian Zeeden, Slobodan Marković, Ulrich Hambach, Frank Lehmkuhl: Establishing a new geochronology of the Stalać loess-paleosol section at the southern margin of the European loess distribution through pIR50IR290 dating; EGU 2016, Vienna
  • Nicole Klasen, Janna Just, Janet Rethemeyer and CRC806 members: Setting the time frame – Investigating culture-environment interaction in the late Quaternary; AGU 2015, San Francisco
  • Franz Hartung, Nicole Klasen, Jürgen Henniger, Alfred Dewald, Helmut Brückner: γ-Dose Rate Determination Using In Situ BeO-Dosimeters; LED 2015, Berlin
  • Nicole Klasen: Testing infrared radiofluorescence dating against quartz OSL and feldspar pIRIRSL dating; LED 2015, Berlin
  • Franz Hartung, Nicole Klasen, Jürgen Henniger, Alfred Dewald, Helmut Brückner: γ-Dose Rate Determination Using In Situ BeO-Dosimeters; UKLUM 2015, Glasgow
  • Franz Hartung, Nicole Klasen, Jürgen Henniger, Alfred Dewald, Helmut Brückner: γ-Dose Rate Determination Using In Situ BeO-Dosimeters; GSGS Research Conference 2015, Köln
  • Nicole Klasen, Janna Just, Finn Viehberg, Bernd Wagner,  Asfawossen Asrat & Frank Schäbitz: Luminescence dating of sediment core samples from Chew Bahir (Southern Ethiopia); UK Luminescence & ESR Meeting 2015, Glasgow
  • Martin Kehl, Nicole Klasen, Christoph Burow, Helmut Brückner, Gerd-Christian Weniger: Luminescence dating of Iberian cave sequences – potential and drawbacks; Sevilla 2015
  • Franz Hartung, Nicole Klasen, Jürgen Henniger, Alfred Dewald, Helmut Brückner: γ-Dose Rate Determination Using In Situ BeO-Dosimeters; LED 2014, Gießen
  • Franz Hartung, Nicole Klasen, Jürgen Henniger, Alfred Dewald, Helmut Brückner: First Insight into the γ-Dose Rate Estimation in Heterogeneous Sediments Contexts with BeO-Dosimeters; LED 2014, Montréal
  • Nicole Klasen, Christoph Schmidt: Infrared radiofluorescence dating of potassium feldspars using the lexsyg research device; LED 2014, Montreal
  • Nicole Klasen, Holger Kels, Frank Lehmkuhl, Alexandra Hilgers: One sample, two techniques, same results? – Testing feldspar against quartz luminescence dating of loess-like sediments from the Ukraine; INQUA ECR 2013, Wollongong

 


RLum.Network: Ein Wissenschaftsnetzwerk zur Analyse von Lumineszenzdaten mit R

Projektleiter: Dr. Christoph Schmidt (Universität Bayreuth)

Projektmitarbeiter: Christoph Burow

Externe Partner:

Förderung: DFG (SCHM 3051/3-1)

Projektseite: http://www.r-luminescence.de  

Thematische Einordnung

Die Lumineszenzdatierung gehört zu den wichtigsten numerischen Datierungsmethoden der modernen Quartärwissenschaft. Methodische und technische Verbesserungen der letzten Jahrzehnte ermöglichen heute komplexe und umfangreiche Datenanalysen. Ein Defizit ist jedoch in der Verfügbarkeit einer flexiblen und skalierbaren Softwarelösung zur Datenanalyse zu sehen. Mit der Veröffentlichung des Software-Pakets „Luminescence“, basierend auf der statistischen Programmierumgebung R, wurde 2012 erstmalig erfolgreich ein umfassendes Set von Routinen zur Lumineszenzdatenanalyse bereitgestellt. Die Software versteht sich zum einen als Werkzeug zur effizienten Nutzung wissenschaftlicher (personeller) Ressourcen, indem etablierte Verfahren zur Datenauswertung und -visualisierung gebündelt und nutzerfreundlich bereitgestellt werden und somit keine laborinterne, individuelle Entwicklung notwendig ist. Zum anderen soll das R-Paket „Luminescence“ helfen, durch offene Quellcodes und nachvollziehbare Rechenoperationen die Transparenz generierter Lumineszenzdaten (Alter) zu steigern und eine hohe Reproduzierbarkeit und Vergleichbarkeit der Ergebnisse von verschiedenen Datierungslaboren zu gewährleisten. Letzteres ist gerade in Bezug auf die Parallelisierung geowissenschaftlicher und archäologischer Archive von hoher Relevanz. 

Ausrichtung und Zusammensetzung des Netzwerkes

Das Netzwerk besteht aus sieben bis acht graduierten und promovierten Nachwuchswissenschaftler/Innen, welche an verschiedenen Universitäten in Deutschland tätig sind (Bayreuth, Gießen, Dresden, Freiberg, Köln) und sich im Rahmen von Qualifikationsarbeiten und der hieraus resultierenden Arbeit mit R zur Analyse von Lumineszenzdaten informell zusammengeschlossen haben. Das Produkt dieser Zusammenarbeit ist das R-Paket „Luminescence“, dessen Pflege und Weiterentwicklung von den Autoren ehrenamtlich geleistet wird. Hierzu ist zum einen breite fachliche Kompetenz in geochronologischer Hinsicht (v.a. seitens der Lumineszenzdosimetrie) nötig, zum anderen ist Expertise im Umgang mit der Programmierumgebung R unabdingbar. Die Ausbildungswege (Geologie, Geographie, Physik, Informatik) und somit das individuelle Fachwissen der Netzwerkmitglieder ergänzen sich optimal, um diesem Anspruch gerecht zu werden. Im Zuge der geplanten Netzwerktreffen sollen sowohl fachliche Aspekte (z.B. im Sinne der Theorie und Messverfahren in der Lumineszenzdatierung) diskutiert, die Pflege der Software sichergestellt als auch die Implementierung neuer Ideen in das bestehende R-Paket „Luminescence“ vorangetrieben werden. 

Ziele

Die Ziele der Zusammenarbeit der Netzwerkmitglieder lassen sich grob in zwei Bereiche untergliedern:Pflege und Weiterentwicklung des R-Pakets „Luminescence“. Hierunter fallen u.a. die Analyse und Diskussion neuer wissenschaftlicher Entwicklungen in der Lumineszenzdatierung sowie deren mögliche Implementierung in die bestehende Software, die fortwährende Dokumentation aller Neuentwicklungen zur Sicherung der Transparenz sowie die Schulung von wissenschaftlichem Nachwuchs in Bezug auf das Paket „Luminescence“. Zudem soll aus dem Netzwerk heraus eine anwenderorientierte Monographie erwachsen.Anwendung. Dazu zählen die Arbeit mit dem Paket im eigenen wissenschaftlichen Umfeld, die weltweite Unterstützung von Anwendern mit Hilfe des Forums der bestehenden Internetseite "www.r-luminescence.de", sowie die Präsentation neuer Funktionen auf nationalen und internationalen Tagungen, um die Reichweite der Software zu steigern. Ergänzend soll damit eine gewisse Formalisierung in der Auswertung und Präsentation von Lumineszenz-Messergebnissen erreicht werden.  

Publikationen 

  • Dietze, M., Kreutzer, S., Burow, C., Fuchs, M.C., Fischer, M., Schmidt, C., 2015. The abanico plot: visualising chronometric data with individual standard errors. Quaternary Geochronology 31, 12-18. doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2015.09.003
  • Smedley, R.K., 2015. A new R function for the Internal External Uncertainty (IEU) model. Ancient TL 33(1),16-21.
  • Fuchs, M.C., Kreutzer, S., Burow, C., Dietze, M., Fischer, M., Schmidt, C., Fuchs, M., 2014. Data processing in luminescence dating analysis: An exemplary workflow using the R package `Luminescence’. Quaternary International 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2014.06.034
  • Dietze, M., Kreutzer, S., Fuchs, M.C., Burow, C., Fischer, M., Schmidt, C., 2013. A practical guide to the R package Luminescence. Ancient TL 31, 11–18.
  • Kreutzer, S., Fuchs, M. C., Dietze, M., Fischer, M., 2012. Introducing an R package for luminescence dating analysis. Workshop. German LED 2012, Mannheim.
  • Kreutzer, S., Schmidt, C., Fuchs, M.C., Dietze, M., Fischer, M., Fuchs, M., 2012. Introducing an R package for luminescence dating analysis. Ancient TL 30 (1), 1–8.

 


Estimation of the regionally differentiated coastal subsidence for southwestern Bangladesh from submerged historical kilns and associated mangrove stump horizons

Projektleiter: Prof. Dr. T.J.J. Hanebuth (MARUM, Universität Bremen)

Projektmitarbeiter: Dr. Anja Zander

Externe Mitarbeiter:

  • Prof. Dr. Kudrass (MARUM, Universität Bremen)
  • Dr. G. Neumann-Denzau

Förderung: DFG (HA4317/8-1)

The aim is to study the subsidence history over an estimated period of 500 years and along 60 km east-west extension along the coast of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. For a robustunderstanding, the architecture of recently discovered rounded kilns at the lower position near Gawbonia and the distribution pattern of the mangrove paleo-stump horizons are investigated.

Publikationen

  • Hanebuth, T.J.J., Kudrass, H.R., Linstädter J., Islam B., Zander, A., 2013. Subsidence of the outer Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh, during the past 300 years deduced from drowned salt‐refining sites. Geology, 41 (9), 987-990.

 

 


OSL surface exposure dating of wave-emplaced boulders – improving the use of coarse-clast records for coastal hazard assessments

Principal Investigator(s): Dr. Dominik Brill, Dr. Simon Matthias May

Förderung: DFG

Fields of wave-emplaced blocks and boulders represent impressive evidence of cyclone and tsunami flooding over Holocene time scales. Unfortunately, their use for coastal hazard assessment is impeded by difficulties in the differentiation of tsunami- and storm-transported clasts, and by the absence of appropriate and accurate dating approaches, which are needed to generate robust chronologies of coarse clast records. The commonly applied AMS-14C, U/Th or ESR dating of coral-reef rocks and marine organisms attached to the clasts depends on a – mostly hypothetical – coincidence between the organisms’ death and boulder displacement, and inferred event chronologies may be biased by the marine 14C-reservoir effect and reworked organisms. The research proposed here addresses the necessity of innovative approaches to date the transport of coastal boulders by testing the recently developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) surface exposure dating technique. By measuring the depth-dependent resetting of the luminescence signal in exposed rock surfaces and comparing it to the signal-depth profiles of known-age samples, OSL surface exposure dating is capable to model direct depositional ages for boulder transport. Thereby, it promises to overcome the limitations of existing dating techniques, and to decipher complex transport histories of clasts that underwent multiple phases of exposure and burial.

The successful application of OSL surface exposure to rock surfaces in archaeological contexts suggests that candidate coarse-clast records should be characterized by (i) overturned boulders that are exposed for periods shorter than the expected dating range of ~10-100 ka; (ii) a boulder lithology with significant percentages of quartz or feldspar appropriate for OSL dating; (iii) limited erosion of the exposed boulder surfaces; and (iv) known-age rock surfaces of the same lithology to calibrate site-specific model parameters (i.e. the local light flux at the rock surface). Our study site at Cabo de Trafalgar (Cádiz, Spain) offers all of these preconditions. Storm and/or tsunami waves have deposited up to 7 m-long clasts composed of Pleistocene beach rock on the inter- and supratidal platform, and multiple dislocation is assumed for numerous smaller clasts. We thus aim at dating boulders with single and multiple dislocation. Recently exposed rock surfaces, ancient buildings as well as quarries provide surfaces of known exposure age. The use of artificially exposed rock samples (for periods of 1 and 2 years) as reference samples for model calibration shall be evaluated. In the best case, the proposed investigations shall not only test the general suitability of the approach to coastal boulders but also provide quantitative information about the frequency-magnitude relationship of extreme wave events at Trafalgar. Thereby, it will allow to verify or falsify a correlation with the 1755 Lisbon tsunami, which is assumed for the largest clasts.

 

 


The tsunami and cyclone hazard in Myanmar – Surveying coastal geoarchives for sedimentary evidence of extreme wave events

Principle investigator: Dr. Dominik Brill

Förderung: DFG

Since at least the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) the benefits of geological tsunami evidence are well established. Although the IOT 2004 also had an exceptional magnitude, its catastrophic effects can only be explained by missing awareness concerning the tsunami risk of the region. Being the first tsunami of this dimension on instrumental and historical records, only geological evidence could have provided information on predecessor events to raise awareness and trigger vulnerability-reducing measures. This example and similar observations after tropical cyclone (TC) Nargis 2008 in Myanmar or Supertyphoon Haiyan 2013 in the Philippines demonstrate that robust hazard assessment must be based on the occurrence of extreme wave events (EWE) with different magnitudes over a prolonged time. While frequency-magnitude information from modern and historical TCs and tsunamis in SE Asia is restricted to a few centuries, geological imprints potentially cover periods of several millennia and record EWE with exceptional magnitudes and low frequencies.

While the IOT 2004 triggered intensive research in most affected areas, still very little is known about EWE deposits in Myanmar. In consequence, the long-term hazard due to exceptional TCs and tsunamis is poorly constrained, although Myanmar is exposed to coastal flooding from three major sources: (i) eastward-moving TCs generated in the Bay of Bengal (e.g. TC Nargis); (ii) tsunamis triggered by complete ruptures of the North-Sumatra-Andaman segment of the Sunda Arc (e.g. the IOT 2004); and (iii) tsunamis triggered by ruptures of the Rakhine (Arakan) segment offshore western Myanmar (e.g. the 1762 tsunami). Since the lack of investigations is at least partly the result of a limited research activity due to the political isolation of Myanmar during the last decades, we assume that geological evidence of EWE is present in suitable near-shore geoarchives; these can contribute to an improved understanding of the long-term tsunami and cyclone hazard.

While the preconditions for the proposed research are provided by a cooperation between Yangon and Cologne Universities, the possibility of poorly preserved or scarce EWE deposits advises a survey of several sites rather than a systematic investigation of individual locations. Therefore, 6-8 beach-ridge plains along the coasts of Myanmar shall be surveyed using light equipment for levelling (DGPS) and sampling (trenches, push cores) of EWE landforms (storm ridges, washover fans) and sand sheets. In combination with sedimentological (granulometry, fauna, mineralogy, geochemistry) and chronological (radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence) laboratory analyses the proposed survey shall trigger follow-up projects by (i) providing a basis for the systematic investigation of promising sites; and (ii) transferring knowledge to local graduates that participate in the field survey.